How witch trials came to be. A systematic holocaust of magical people. Timeline By Adam "Absinthe" Prout
313 CE Emperor Constantine tolerates Christianity in the Empire. Paganism is the common religious practice. Before this in the 1st century CE the New Testament is written.
325 The Council of Nicea creates an enforcement of orthodoxy and calls for the expulsion of heretics from the empire.
390 Emporor Theodus makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire: bans pagan sacrifice in Rome.
410 The Visogoths sack Rome. They are a Germanic tribe.
5th C St Augustine converts from dualism (Manichean heresy) teaching that paganism as idolatry is demon worship.
5th through 9th C Germanic invasions. Barbarian legal codes speak of witch beliefs in the form of the Striga. Lobardic codes in Italy and Salic Law in France.
604 CE Pope Gregory sends Augustine to England for gradual conversion as seen in Bede's History of English Church & People.
800 CE Charlemagne is crowned Emperor in Rome. Christianity is a growing influence and forced on conquered tribes such as the Slavs.
10th C Christian beliefs are still skeptical about popular beliefs of the Striga and nightflying with Diana. In 906 Canon Episcopi is published with a compilation of Canon Law. In 1008-1012 Buchard of Worms, the Corrector of Rustics is published which shows us a genre of penitential canons as a guide for confessors.
1095 First Crusade. Islam is the threat to Christianity. Jewish are the internal threat. Rhineland massacres in 1296.
12th-13th C The Rise of heretical groups.
Medieval Manicheans known as Cathars are the target. 1220-1229 The King of France uses military suppression to conduct the Albigensian Crusade. By 1230 an inquisition is founded to eliminate all remaining Cathars/Waldensians..
13th C Scholasticism is developed as an orthodox response to Heresy. Thomas Aquinas writes Summa theologiae in the 1270's. Educated Elites. Introduces sorcery as a diabolical pact with the Devil.
1233 Vox & Rama a papal bull stating it is ok to put heretics on trial because they worship the devil.
Around the 1230's anti heretical preaching orders based on poverty and non material lifestyles ensue. Dominicans in France. Franciscans in Italy. St Dominic becomes the first official inquisitor. Conrad of Marburg inquisitor in Germany,
So far there is only a demonization of heretics and sorcery up to this point and not witchcraft.
1305-1378 conflict between papacy and King Philip IV of France causes holy Roman empire to move to Avignon rather than Rome.
1326-1330 Super Illius Specula. Magic is now real and heresy. Inquisitions must stamp it out. John XXII.
15th C Witchcraft is introduced as a new crime. Maleficium plus devil worship.
THE FIRST WITCH TRIAL IS FOR A MAN.
1397-1400 Switzerland. Trial of Stedeln by Peter von Greyerz. First witchcraft treatise describes it written by Johannes Nider. (1435-38) Formicarius.
1427 Italy. Bernardino of Siena writes Against Women Sorcerers. Witch Trials begin in Rome.
1420-1470 Witch trials take place in Switzerland and France.
1484-1486 Germany. Kramer and Sprenger conduct trials. Based on their experience the write and publish the:
1487 Malleaus Maleficarum, The single most used text and the go to guide for witch trials for centuries. Arguably the most misogynistic literature ever written. They contact Pope Innocent VIII who creates Summis desiderantes affectibus in 1484. The Witch Bull.
1692 Salem Witch Trials in America
14th-17th C Europe has a mini ice age. Scholars notice correlation between the cold causing problems and difficulties for Europe and the rise of witchcraft accusations. As the ice age ends, the witch trials decrease.
Let them come who wish to come, And let them go who wish to go, And do not harm to me or mine. -Ancient Icelandic Invitation Formula for the Elven Folk
Prince of Brats