Myths and Memes of the Genetic Matrix and Royal Lines
by Iona Miller, 12/2013
for Paranoia Magazine
Genealogy—the study of families and tracing their lineage through history—has become the world's biggest hobby, second only to sex online. What is little known is that the underground stream itself has spawned many underground scenes of varying credibility. Thus, before leaping to Web-generated memes about Reptilians, Anunnaki, Merovingians, Templars, Gnostics, Illuminati, Pendragons, Vampires, ancient aliens, holy blood, grail lines, god-kings, or "Luciferian consciousness," you might want to find out if you carry remnants in your own genes. Indeed, you may be being strangled by your own roots.
To transcend our small selves, we need ever bigger stories. Conspiracy fans project their fascination for (or animosity toward) the Bloodline meme onto individuals and groups while the psyche fills in the blanks of our conscious understanding with imaginal, mythic material that is symbolic or metaphoric, not literal.
The gullible are increasing, preferring mythic confabulations, misconceptions, and self-delusion to pragmatic truth or statistical data. The appeal of unsubstantiated daisy chains of evidence is largely due to the need for emotional confirmation. Many seek evidence that will corroborate and ignore that which doesn't fit. For example, most Presidential candidates trace to colonial or revolutionary families, but so do millions of others. This is no "plot": an enormous number of tertiary people carry the bloodline with or without any knowledge or privilege.
The widely misunderstood "bloodline conspiracy" looks different from inside its own culture than it does outside. The best and perhaps only way to truly grasp its deeper meaning is from the inside out. For example, those who disbelieve the Grail paradigm might be surprised to find it turning up in their family tree. In fact, you might be able to read the history of the world in your own genealogical lines, in the lives of your great-grandparents. Find four to five generations and you plug into the World Tree.
Those actively pursuing their royal genealogies or involved in numerous organizations and loose-knit heritage groups often hold radically different viewpoints on the subject than the sensationalistic articles generated and endlessly recycled online. Seekers tend to be spiritual, metaphysical, or deeply religious and fascinated with certain eras, issues, or philosophies filled with magical personas, illustrious or nefarious ancestors, alternative lifestyles, etc. Most tend to be “lone wolves,” finding meaning only they value. Detractors tend to be profoundly skeptical, antagonistic, even political in that they believe "bloodlines" are malignant and controlling, perhaps even a nonhuman cabal of evil intent.
Clearly, bloodlines mean many things to many people.
Interest in bloodlines is generally accompanied by a theory like ancient aliens or hybridization, like Zecharia Sitchin's Sumerian story, despite the fact that Sumerian bilingual dictionaries translate words in ways that totally contradict Sitchin. Take the meaning of Anunnaki. It is more like First Born, "those who unite heaven and earth," the living embodiment of “as above, so below,” much like The Magus in the Tarot. The source family is self-arising First Family, a fount of self-generation and self-knowledge.
Political viewpoints range from monarchist to anarchist theories about ruling elites who have a stranglehold on social control and bloodline. David Icke aggressively promotes his theory that elites are shape-shifting Reptilians, even accusing his ex-wife of being the same. His hysteria has earned him big money. Salacious stories may sell, but they are simply demonization and projection.
It is the effects, not the content, that tell the tale. Ongoing human oppression doesn't need aliens in order to exist, nor do ‘aliens’ absolve government and industry sociopaths. Highly placed scions of dynastic houses mostly deny alien influence anyway, though some are seduced by the notion. Icke himself is a pot calling the kettle black, given that he himself exploits the public. If he really cared about humanity, would he be charging for his so-called wisdom in the spiritual supermarket like other duplicitous, charismatic tricksters do?
Linking aliens, UFOs, and gov-crime with catastrophobia conveniently expands the potential audience, the irony being that such appeals probably do ignite the reptilian brainstem's deer-in- the-headlights primal fears.
Different memes (popular disinformation, viral ideas) capture our attention, sometimes to the point of obsession when symbolism mobilizes into a fugue that overwhelms the ego. Many claim they are the reincarnation of Mary Magdalene, Jesus, Crowley, the Antichrist, the "Men Who Would Be King," or various archetypal characters; others bury themselves in deciphering hidden codes or taking endless pilgrimages to search for treasure, relics, etc.
Tired memes are repeated over and over again as if mere repetition validates them. They cluster around wild tales of the Anunnaki and mythic beings, Rh negative blood, and allegations of racial difference, etc. Such notions originate from those unfamiliar with genealogy, their historical descent, or the basics of biology.
Rational facts are unlikely to dissuade anyone in a mystic marriage with mythic and emotional appeals. They don't want to hear evidence to the contrary because they are highly invested in their own identities and narratives, right or wrong. Those who are ego-invested have an even higher stake in being somehow "special."
Most views about bloodlines miss the point. Rather than an outside theory or opinion, the bloodline is a deeply integrative experience. Because it is experiential, it appears as a "calling" or mission unfolding like Joseph Campbell’s hero motif. The deep context of our global heritage is a mythic perspective suited to our age, culture, and sensibilities, symbols being the currency of consciousness. The highest symbol and value of our era is the Grail because it carries a different meaning for each individual in their quest for self-knowledge. So the reference to the Rose Line in The Da Vinci Code points to royal genealogies, and the Grail to the source of life or generativity.
It's All Relative
All of humanity is related many times over. Ancestors are the people you directly descend from, i.e. a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, etc.--not extended family members. The more generations that people are separated by, the more their genetic relatedness exponentially plummets. With 25 years per generation, you had around 3 billion ancestors at the signing of the Magna Carta, 100 billion during the Norman invasion, and 2 quintillion (1018) when the Roman Empire fell. Earth did not contain a fraction of that population then, so we must be related to everyone on Earth many times over.
In fact, after only a few generations, a personal genealogy links to the World Tree, or as Dr. Carl Jung calls it the deeper collective unconscious in which the personal unconscious is embedded. This is the genetic matrix that holds a complete set of instincts and response patterns responsible for the survival of your two genetic streams.
Knowing your genealogy brings that invisible information into consciousness. Sometimes the knowledge is shocking, destabilizing, or permanently alters one's sense of self. Relatively speaking, there is something about knowing exactly who you are and where you come from.
Later monarchs descend many times over from earlier ones. Research suggests that everyone in the West is descended from Charlemagne, the entire world from the Ancient Egyptian royal house, and almost everyone from Confucius and Genghis Khan. Probably 60 percent or more Americans are descended from kings. Anthropologists claim that everyone on earth is a 40th cousin, and that any two people can find at least one common ancestor from about 800CE.
These findings do not necessarily bear any implications for our DNA. Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy and involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals and archaic tribes. It provides evidence of tribal migrations, but none about the actual people in genealogical lines, much less their names or history.
Thus descent from someone does not mean you necessarily inherit any DNA from them. These findings do not conflict with the idea that most of your DNA is inherited from your local area. Descending from the Pharaohs does not mean it will be detected in your DNA. In fact, there may be no evidence at all of genealogical findings in humanity's DNA, and yet the findings can still be true.
Genetics, Not Genealogy
Genome sequencing indicates that modern humans interbred with other now-extinct species, including Neanderthal, Denisovian, and an unknown Asian species, possibly Homo heidelbergensis. Neanderthal relative Homo heidelbergensis were found in Spain and are over 500,000 years old. The relic biology of other hominids remains part of our genome (Nature). Western European DNA has shown up in Siberians and Native Americans.
Our early ancestors had only Type O blood. Around 40,000 years ago, mutations likely occurred and created A and B blood types, including a mutation from Rh positive to Rh negative in the Basque area of Europe—a mutation that probably ended in Types A and B from dominant genes that rapidly spread through the population.
What could cause such mutations in the Upper Paleolithic era? The Laschamp event was a short reversal of the Earth’s geomagnetic field 41,000 years ago with our magnetic shield decreasing to 5% and exposing humanity to unusual amounts of cosmic radiation. (During the last Ice Age ending 11,700 years ago, a compass at the Black Sea would have pointed south instead of north.) The transition lasted 250 years. Greater radiation meant a warm spell followed by a population explosion.
Genes mutate all the time; sometimes, a gene is "turned off." In large populations, even helpful mutations tend to get “swamped” by non-mutant genes and vanish over time. We determine genetic relationships among people by comparing sequences of nucleotides in their DNA.
DNA tells the stories of our forebears, from the first human who walked on the earth to YOU—whether our ancestors interbred with Neanderthals or took migratory paths. It all depends on what you want to know and your ability to interpret the genetic code. For example, the University of Arizona geneticists discovered that the oldest known branch of the human Y (male) chromosome is 300,000 years old, and yet scientific definitions of genetic ethnicity are not universally accepted. Even with both a pedigree and genetic genealogy tests, the results still need interpretation, given that different members of the same family can display different features: Scythians, Saxons, Gauls, Picts, Franks, Nordics, Iberians, and Celts tend to merge in the melding pot.
Two Y chromosomes that carry the same mutation share a common paternal ancestor at some point in the past. The more mutations that differ between two Y chromosomes, the further back in time that common ancestor lived. Mitochondrial DNA is passed only through the female line. Mitochondria are a symbiotic organism, a separate life form from ourselves that can live 15 generations. The living cells of your 15th great-grandparents are alive in you.
Even siblings may or may not inherit the slightest bit of any given ancestor or line. Thus, there is no single haplotype for the royal lines, nor any single identifying gene of that inheritance. Those with a royal genealogy may not have a single royal gene in their genome, making any claims of extraordinary inheritance moot.
From 15,000-7,500 years ago, most British ancestors were hunter-gatherers. Basque STRs (genetic markers used to identify a DNA sequence) reveal 21 founding clusters, which could only have arrived directly from Basque country, given that their descendant twigs are unique to the British Isles.
A single DNA change led to the blue, green, hazel, and other "mood eye" colors. While the “red gene” is significant, it may or may not distinguish noble ancestors. Neanderthals also had red hair, but studies show that the mutation responsible differs from the cause of red hair in modern humans. Genetic drift favors the fair skinned because they can absorb more Vitamin D in less-sunny northern climes, and it helps to retain heat.
Genetics demonstrates that traits are not preferentially inherited from the ancestral matrix. While you may have a demonstrable royal line, you inherit far more genetics from commoners whose lines were not recorded. While it is true that the Y-haplotype is passed directly from father to son, generation after generation, we all also inherit the even more persistent mitochondrial DNA from our maternal ancestors—up to 400 generations or so.
With mtDNA, the surname changes each generation. Every once in a while a mutation—a random, natural (and usually harmless) change—occurs in that sequence like a spelling mistake. After one of these mutations occurs, a woman passes it on to her daughters, and her daughters' daughters, and so on. Sons also inherit mtDNA, but the sons do not pass it on. Geneticists use these markers to construct one global mitochondrial family tree.
No one knows where Rhesus negative blood (Rh-) originates. It simply means that the blood doesn't have any Rhesus antigens on the surface of the red blood cells. Absence of a protein does not have to originate from anywhere. Rh+ has the antigen; Rh- does not. The gene quit working.
There is nothing alien here. Actually the absence of our own genes produces the RhD antigen. Transport of CO2 is the ancestral function of Rh proteins; it potentially helped breathing in northern climes. The role of RhD is to help maintain the flexible, flattened shape of the red cell.
Plausibly, a mutation on the first chromosome rendered Rh- individuals incapable of producing functional Rhesus proteins. Few have it because it is a recessive trait. Five percent of the global population is currently Rh-. It rises to 15% in the UK and USA, and 50% in the Basques descending from indigenous Paleolithic inhabitants.
Conceivably, only one sibling in a dozen might be Rh-, descended from Rh+ parents. Even siblings get varied genetic packages and may not have genes from all the ethnicities or ancestors of their genealogical lines. There are different ethnic signatures. Some siblings might carry the signature of Native ancestry, others not.
As a recessive trait, Rh- blood may or may not express in a family. It could be ten or more generations since anyone had Rh negative blood in his/her family. To express it, both parents must carry the recessive gene. Two parents who have O+ blood could easily have an O- child. Most O- children have parents who are positive. Some or perhaps none of a couple's children will inherit the trait. Siblings can be mixed Rh- with other blood types that are dominant.
Some people wrongly believe that O- blood is "pure" or "alien” when the truth is that every group genetically overlaps with every other. There is no singular gene, mutation, allele, STR or SNP that tells the whole story. Clusters of mutations show deep relationship patterns of regional origin in some individuals. No DNA report is 100% conclusive; it is a statistical “educated guess,” and many families conduct their own DNA research projects.
The Scourge of In-Breeding
Certain diseases, like hemophilia, run in the royal lines. Symptoms of porphyria, a genetic blood disease, gave rise to folktales of vampirism. Like the First Born, porphyria began at the beginning of time not as one condition but as a group of diseases, sometimes including psychiatric symptoms, psychotic breaks, coma and catatonia, bipolar and schizophrenic disorders.
The Great Rite of sexual magic included brother-sister marriage. The "Sacred Marriage," hieros gamos, of ancient Sumer was the origin of all such rites found in later civilizations. It ensured continuation and renewal and conserved sovereignty, wealth and social control in the same families; they bred their horses and themselves in the same way. Modern research reveals that inbreeding changes the shape of the genetic covariance matrix.
Porphyria sufferers have pallid skin color and diseased receding gums that make their teeth appear larger than normal. Given their severe anemia, the traditional treatment would have been to drink (animal) blood. Suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave heme in human blood or that consuming blood might ease symptoms, is based on misunderstanding and medically ignorant superstition. Phlebotomy or bloodletting was the treatment of choice for many disorders.
Roughly 1,000 years ago, porphyria was more common than elsewhere in small Transylvanian villages where inbreeding probably occurred. Ironically, it arose in ancient Sun-worshipping cultures. The heme groups in porphyria sufferers cause uncontrollable tissue, bone and blistering skin damage, made worse under sunlight.
Vampire legends trace back at least 4,000 years to ancient Mesopotamia, the root of all Western royal lines. The Greeks and Celts had similar creatures in their folklore, and Indian mythology featured shape-shifter vampires who took over dead bodies for their own use. Nomads carried vampire legends to the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Symptoms were thus overlaid with myth; photosensitivity and personality change created a daunting specter, especially in rulers.
Porphyria was introduced into the House of Stuart via Henry VIII’s sister, Margaret Tudor, who married James IV of Scotland. The Stuarts and Hanoverians carried the disorder into Europe through various alliances, and subsequent intermarriages increased the likelihood of passing it down through the generations. Porphyria can be traced through the Stuarts, Tudors, and Hanovers. Katherine of Valois probably brought it from France since her father Charles VI was a "typical porph." Some Scots families went from Brittany to England to Scotland with the Stewarts, picking up the porphyria gene.
Genealogy, Not Genetics
Life and consciousness are the ultimate emergent phenomena, but their real origin remains veiled in mystery. We are cosmic psychophysical beings whose core reaches into the microcosm of quantum dynamics and the still center of Zero-Point.
Genealogy, not genetics, can function as a therapeutic portal much like dreams or symptoms, allowing us to enter the imaginal dimension. Genealogy is about identity, not identification. It is an art, a quest for truth within, mobilizing the soul for creative self-expression, self-discovery and self-healing.
In imaginal dialogues it doesn’t matter what you say, but what they say back. Much benefit and fulfillment comes simply by remembering, writing, recording, sharing, painting, enacting or otherwise birthing into the physical world. Genealogy takes tremendous effort, affecting the psyche with both known and unknown historical and imaginal elements. It has its own magic, alchemy, and synchronicities.
You have ancestors from whom you have no DNA. Your individual DNA fingerprint depends on how the chromosomes line up at conception, with some traits from both parents’ potentials there and some excluded. Two siblings can be redheads, others not; two can have family medical problems, others not; two Rh negative, others not. We may find things we never imagined and find no evidence for known traits in our lineage.
In genealogy, direct line refers to parent to child, grandparent, great-grandparent, etc. Direct-line research is genealogy focusing on one's direct-line ancestors. Proving a direct line of descent is generally required for membership in heritage societies. Blood relations refers to the Underground Stream, the Red River of Memories flowing within us. The Blood is real and fresh, flowing in our veins.
By contrast, collateral line describes family relationships not in direct descent: siblings, spouses, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Just seven generations back, we have over 200 people in our immediate father-mother, grandfather-grandmother line.
Epigenetics is the heritable changes in gene activity not caused by changes in the DNA sequence but instead rooted in our ancestors' experience. Genes are expressed or silenced, depending on famine or fortune.
Some seek social status through their genealogies when other avenues elude them; in quest of identity, they wind up finding the Shadow. Others use the genealogy to build a persona or mystique to be their main way of connecting in the world, an excessive commitment to a social mask or psychological armor. Recovery—the aim of individuation—means re-adapting to outer life.
As previously indicated, many who discover their noble lines leap to royal ego trips, declaring themselves princes of imaginal realms, seeking spurious titles. The unconscious psyche can either produce material for great wisdom or churn out endless rubbish and trickster distortions. Ego inflation by identifying with an archetype or, in pathological cases, with a historical or religious figure is merely overexpansion attempting to reach beyond individual limitations.
No credible DNA experts support such memes or mystification. An individual living today carries only 3/1000 of 1% of an ancestor's "pure" DNA of 15 generations (360 years) ago. Even with today’s technology, the line is simply untraceable in autosomal DNA. (Miller)
Grail houses can have different Y haplogroups (paternal) as well as different mtDNA (maternal) signatures, and typical medical problems of a line don’t all appear in one individual. And yet while the hereditary factor determining male sex passes unchanged from father to son, there is no exclusive or conclusive DNA signature for Grail lineage or unbroken dynastic Houses. Gaps in the legends, histories, and pedigrees still require interpretation, if not leaps of imagination. Dynastic Houses and "mixed blood" both refer to the same recognized source material.
Flaws in statistical sampling can lead to misinterpretations, especially in small samplings and comparison studies. Our conclusions about our own DNA tests are, in part, interpretations of an interpretation. We can only draw inferences about the past based on the patterns observed in human DNA. And this is what keeps our quest alive.
Any viable genealogy must be curated with citations and evidence at every stage. But again, it is a matter of interpretation. Once you locate a gateway ancestor—one who links your family to a known noble ancestry—the door opens to a world of recorded and published pedigrees that can lead back to royalty. These gateways provide a personal link to the highly inbred medieval world in the form of descents from medieval kings, queens, popes, crusaders, troubadours, heroes, villains, and saints.
Genealogy without proofs is speculative, and even those lines accepted as "best practice" in genealogy have gaps and presumptions that ultimately lead back to mythical progenitors like Wotan, Hercules, or Aphrodite—and yes, even Cain.
Early immigrants with traceable royal ancestry are the best gateways, but not really out of any class-oriented prejudice. Most Europeans descend largely from farmers who migrated out of the Middle East 9,000 years ago. As offspring left their parents’ farms and moved into new territory, they interbred with existing hunter-gatherer populations. This produced gradients of genetic change radiating from the Middle East. The genes of indigenous people remained intact only in mountainous areas like the Pyrenees of the Basque. Other historical events influenced the European gene pool, like the genetic trail leading from the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas into the rest of Europe—a trail that helped spread the descendants of nomadic warriors and herders who first domesticated the horse about 4,000BCE.
Among the early European immigrants of the Americas, individuals with noble connections are likely to be traceable to a far larger number of ancestors. Chances are that the line from your gateway ancestor leads to Charlemagne. Most of these ascents go through English or French kings, such as Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, back to the Merovingians.
Do the Math and Get Over It
Most Americans with sizable New England Yankee, mid-Atlantic Quaker, or Southern "planter" ancestry are descended from medieval royals, especially kings of England, Scotland, and France. Follow those lines back into the mists of pre-history and you will find direct links to all so-called racial divisions, though most of our ancestors will remain "invisible."
Among direct ancestors, ancient royal lines include Asian Siberians and Han Chinese dynasties, sub-Saharan African, Jewish, and Muslim lines. Some have Turkish, Persian, and Indian lines. Ultimately, this means "race" is an illusion, excepting the human race. The math backs this up, indicating we are all related within perhaps forty generations.
So you find you come from royalty—get over it! The Pyramid Theory, a doubling of ancestors each generation back, claims you have 2,048 ancestors by the 12th generation past, and possibly 60,000 direct ancestors going back to the Crusades. By Generation 40, you would have more than one trillion ancestors!
We are at the temporary end of a long and winding genetic journey that continues after and through us. We are probably all connected by 25th great-grandparents and descendants (or related) of almost everyone alive some 700 years ago. Genealogical evidence shows that many families intermarried for generations. You have possibly 60,000 direct ancestors going back to the Crusades.
When a determined gene survives intact through all those descendants and becomes a particle of memory, it may give you a dejá vu once in a while. Ancestral memories may not be of actual events—not to be confused with the idea of past lives or reincarnation—but of reactive response patterns and emotional states brought about by environment. The past has gone and the future has yet to come. All we ever have is the present.
So how do we relate to those we perceive as kin? Anthropologist Nancy Thornhill contends that the prohibitions against incestuous marriages in most societies are not public-health measures to reduce birth defects, but are the society's way of fighting back against extended families and elitism.
Successful coalitions and charlatans may pose as "kin.” Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker warns that misperceived kinship makes people vulnerable to manipulation and cultish mind control, kinship being in the mind of the beholder.
It isn't merely our noble genealogy shared with millions that makes us who we are. What is unique is our personal reaction to such knowledge and how our relationship with it evolves as we assimilate and integrate that expanded awareness—the Mystery of the whole matter that we are all in it together.
We need to know genealogy much like we need to know physics and psychology: to comprehend what matter is as well as what makes us matter. We have thousands of unpreserved ancestor lines, making the small slice of royal descent largely archetypal and material. The part stands for the Whole—this embodies the cosmic process of Big History.
The Atlantic, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2001/04/the-genetic-archaeology-of-race/2180/
Banyan, Will, Paranoia Magazine, http://www.paranoiamagazine.com/2013/01/the-tangled-web-icke-weaves-who-is-behind-david-ickes-freedom-foundation/
Bryner, Jeanna, One Common Ancestor Behind Blue Eyes, January 31, 2008. http://www.livescience.com/9578-common-ancestor-blue-eyes.html
“Cosmic rays reveal event in Earth's magnetic field history,” Nov 29, 2012, Journal of Geophysical Research, http://phys.org/news/2012-11-cosmic-rays-reveal-event-earth.html
Miller, Iona, 2013, “Jungian Genealogy,” http://jungiangenealogy.weebly.com/
Miller, Iona, 2013, “Sangreality Now,” http://sangreality.weebly.com/index.html
Miller, Iona, 2013, Porphyria Theory”, http://trianglebook.weebly.com/porphyria-theory.html
Nowaczyk, Dr. Norbert and Prof. Helge Arz, Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
Oppenheimer, Stephen, “Myths of British ancestry,” October 2006, Prospect, https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/mythsofbritishancestryrevisited/#.Uo1R5HcvY_M
Pinker, Steven, 2007, “Strangled by Roots,” http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/2007.06.08_thenewrepublic.pdf
Stolte, Daniel, "Human Y chromosome much older than previously thought,” American Journal of Human Genetics, March 4, 2013 http://phys.org/news/2013-03-human-chromosome-older-previously-thought.html#jCp
Yong, Ed, “Americas’ natives have European roots The oldest known genome of a modern human solves long-standing puzzles about the New World's genetic heritage,” Nature, 20 November 2013, www.nature.com/news/americas-natives-have-european-roots-1.14213
About the Author Iona Miller has traced her own bloodline back to Sumeria, been in many so-called Dragon groups, and is an advisor to the peer-reviewed DNA Decipher Journal and other scientific journals. She is a clinical hypnotherapist, multimedia artist, and nonfiction writer for academic and popular presses. Her main site is http://ionamiller.weebly.com.
If we use the figure of 50% inheritance in each generation, knowing that it’s
imperfect because we don’t receive 25% of our genes from each grandparent,
we know the following about our individual inheritance:
Parents – 50% from each one
Grandparents – 25% from each one
Great-grandparents – 12.5% from each one
Great-great-grandparents – 6.25% from each one
For most of us, average age of 50 (genealogists don’t tend to start young), and
with an average generation length of 30 years, this equates to the following
Us –born about 1960
Parents – born about 1930
Grand-parents – born about 1900 (we probably knew them)
Great-grandparents – born about 1870 (we probably didn’t know them, but our
grandparents and parents told us about them)
Great-grandparents – born about 1840 (we definitely didn’t know them, but we
probably knew who they were genealogically as our grandparents knew them)
Most people who seek to discover their Native American ancestry are by
necessity looking back before the “Trail of Tears”, often to the tribes that were
exterminated by the colonists before the Revolutionary War. Remnants of those
tribes intermarried with whites and free people of color as well as joining the
tribes still existent, such as the Cherokees and Creeks who were later removed.
Unfortunately, on the genealogy chart, this takes us back another two
generations to ancestors born in 1810 and in 1780. Respectively, we carry an
average of 3.125% and 1.56% of their DNA. The next generation back, born in
1750 before the Revolutionary War, we carry less than 1%, on average, of their
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